Escaping in iCalendar and vCard

The #1 bug report in my vObject library (a library to parse and create iCalendar and vCard objects in PHP) is that it does a bad job escaping/un-escaping of values.

In particular, it double-escapes certain values, changing things like ; into \\; and in other cases it’s a bit too liberal un-escaping.

It’s gotten to a point where I got so frustrated about this bug, I’ve been working all week on a new version of the parser.

Determined to do things right this time, I wanted to make sure I complied with all the relevant standards, in particular:

When I first wrote the vObject I naively thought that these formats were more or less the same. On the surface it does indeed seem that way, everything does seem to follow this basic structure:

FN:Evert Pot

The nuances and slight difference between the specifications are enough to drive a simple person to madness though.

Just on the topic of ecaping values (the part after the :) the specifications have the following to say:

vCard 2.1

vCard 2.1, as well as the other specs have a concept of ‘compound’ or multi-value properties. An example:


As you can see, the N property has multiple values. Any of these values may also contain a ;, which must be escaped as \;. So we also cannot blindly encode a string and automatically add backslashes to any ; we see.

The semi-colons should only be escaped in the ADR, ORG and N fields, but we can assume that backslashed semi-colons may also appear in other values.

Any property may have a parameter, a parameter looks a bit like this:


A parameter in vCard starts with a ;, has a name and a value. Only the colon may be escaped in parameters, using \:.

If you somehow wanted to encode a real backslash though, there’s no mention of escaping it as a double-backslash.

If you need newlines in any values, quoted-printable encoding must be used. Other specs all encode newlines as \n or \N.

vCard 3.0

rfc2425 says that backslashes (\\), newlines (\N or \n) and comma’s (\,) must always be escaped, no exceptions.. Well except when the comma is used as a delimiter for multiple values.

rfc2426 add semi-colon (\;) to this list, except when it’s used as a delimiter. Semi-colon is used as a delimiter in the N, ADR, GEO and ORG fields. NICKNAME and CATEGORIES use comma’s.

vCard also says that individual parts of ADR, and N may also contain multiple values themselves, which are themselves split by a comma.

Quoted-printable is now deprecated, and should no longer be used.

Parameters have also changed. The new rule is that parameters must not contain ;, : or ", unless they are surrounded by double-quotes, in which case only " may not appear. Escaping of the colon character (\:) has disappeared.

vCard 4.0

vCard 4 changes the interpretation of 3.0 a bit, and now states that semi-colons may be escaped, depending on the property.

The implication is that we need to maintain lists of properties, if they support multiple- or compound-values and which delimiter they use (, or ;).

Semi-colons are now used by N, ADR, ORG and CLIENTPIDMAP. Comma’s are used by NICKNAME, RELATED, CATEGORIES and PID.

Even though the spec does say that comma’s must always be escaped, it does appear to violate this rule in it’s own examples, specifically the example for GEO (which is no longer a compound float value, but a url).

iCalendar 2.0

iCalendar 2.0 largely follows the same rules as vCard 4.0, but commas and semi-colons must be esacped, unless they are used as a delimiter.

Semi-colons are used as a delimiter in REQUEST-STATUS, RRULE, GEO and EXRULE, every other property uses commas.


One major flaw in all the above specs was that it was not possible to encode just any value as a parameter. Newlines are not allowed, and in no case can you encode a double-quote.

rfc6868 updates both iCalendar 2.0 and vCard 4.0 to use caret (^) as an escape character. To write a double quote, use ^', to encode a newline use ^n and to encode a caret, use ^^.

The hard part

A simple generic parser is with this information simply out of the window, not only will my parser have to be aware which document it’s parsing, it will also have to make individual decisions based on which property it’s parsing.

Researching and listing these rules helped, and I hope it’s also helpful for a future implementor.

It’s important to be strict in generating these formats, but considering the complexity of these rules, it’s extremely likely other software has bugs when generating these (and they do! a lot!) any parser needs to be able to handle these mistakes and attempt to make logical decisions based on what likely the intention was.

Found mistakes?

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