HTTP/2 Push for APIs

HTTP/2 brought us the ability to push resources from server to client, before client knows they need it.

HTTP/2 push has had mixed success, up to a point where Chrome developers are thinking of experimenting with disabling it alltogether. I think this would be a huge loss for APIs, so I shared my thoughts on the IETF HTTP-WG mailing list.

I copied it in full here (slightly reformatted):

From: Evert Pot
Subject: Another PUSH defense: APIs

Hi everyone,

I wanted to chime into the discussion and share a different use-case for h2 push.

My background is mostly API development. In the last few years I’ve developed a number of REST-flavored services, most recently using the HAL format.

When looking at various hypermedia formats, they all tend to have something in common, the need to embed resources.

What this generally means, is that if you do a GET request on a ‘collection’, the response typically gives you information about the collection, but also every entry inside of it. If effectively embeds the representation you would have gotten if you had done a GET request directly on individual item in the collection.

Every one of those embedded GET responses has their own url, their own contents and their own list of links.

  • HAL does this with _embedded.
  • Atom does this with the <item> element.
  • Collection+JSON does this with the items JSON property.
  • Siren does this with the entities JSON property.
  • JSON API does this via the relationships property.

Here’s an generic example of a fictional collection in a fictional hypermedia format.

HTTP/1.1 200 OK
Content-Type: application/json

  links: [
     { href: '/collection/1', rel: 'item' },
     { href: '/collection/2', rel: 'item' },
     { href: '/collection/3', rel: 'item' },
     { href: '/collection/4', rel: 'item' },
     { href: '/collection/5', rel: 'item' },
     { href: '/collection/6', rel: 'item' },
  total: 6,
  embedded: {
    '/collection/1' : {
       links: { ... },
       ...other properties
    '/collection/2' : {
       links: { ... },
       ...other properties
    '/collection/3' : {
       links: { ... },
       ...other properties

Chances are that for a given ‘hypermedia’ format, you will find some mechanism to embed resources.

To me, all of this is an anti-pattern, to work around a limitation of HTTP. It’s cheaper to do a single GET request and get many HTTP responses embedded in one, than doing many GET requests for each item in a collection. It’s a sane design for HTTP/1.1.

The HAL draft has a good explanation of this. The section is titled “Hypertext cache pattern”.

The problem is also apparent in non-hypermedia formats. GraphQL for example cites on their website the following 2 main advantages over using resource-oriented architectures:

  1. Ask for what you need, get exactly that
  2. Get many resources in a single request

In particular selling point #2 is interesting. Not many people would care about ‘getting many resources in a single request’ or even intuitively think that getting multiple answers to a single question is a good thing if it weren’t for the fact that we’re conditioned that less HTTP requests has been a good thing.

However, doing many GET requests is semantically better. Some of the issues with getting collections of embedded responses are:

  • HTTP caches completely ignore them. It’s not uncommon for client implementations of API specifications to re-create their own userland cache that’s only ware of 1 specific format.
  • This also means that HTTP caches for individual items don’t automatically invalidate when receiving a new version of an embedded resource.
  • It’s typically not possible to embed items that are of a different media types than their parent. If your parent resource is encoded as JSON chances are the embedded item probably must too.
  • Even though embedded items represent ‘what you would have gotten if you did a GET request directly on the item’, they typically miss HTTP response headers.
  • It’s often unclear how applications should behave when receiving embedded resources from other origins.

So taken all these things into consideration, I wondered if it was possible to create a generic format for embedding resources in other (JSON resources). I realized that this format would need to at least have the following properties:

  • Be generic enough so it can be used for different API specifications.
  • Embed HTTP response headers for each item.
  • Embed some HTTP request headers for each item, so a generic cache could pick this up. See RFC7234, section 4.1 “Secondary cache keys”.
  • Have defined semantics for cross-origin embeds.

When I listed these requirements it occurred me that HTTP/2 already has a protocol-level facility for this: PUSH and the ORIGIN frame.

My hope for the future of REST apis is this:

  1. When HTTP requests are cheaper, entities can be smaller.
  2. Instead of non-semantically nesting HTTP responses in HTTP responses, related resources can be pushed.
  3. The ORIGIN frame is used for pushing resources from a collection of other (controlled) origins.
  4. Cache Digests and ETags are used to only push resources the client needs.

Cache Digest really makes this the killer feature, because it doesn’t just make this incrementally better, it actually will have major performance benefits. Then if developers can stop building their own caches, you get a lot of speed for free.

So my plea to you is to don’t kill push just yet. We’re still missing some of the building blocks (cache digests), but with the right framework in place, I think we can see a new wave of API designs that weren’t viable before.


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